Checking references and citations


It is amazing how many students get into a muddle over the simple process of ensuring accurate links to the supporting evidence for their claims. Let us get this right; it is not the supervisors job to check that citations and references are correct, but the External Examiner of the degree certainly will check this. For that reason, it is the supervisor’s job to make sure that the research student gets it right. It is not a difficult task, but it can be time-consuming, so the task needs meticulous care.

To lay down some ground rules, when researchers make a claim or a statement of ‘fact’ in their writing, we need to establish the source of that claim. There are two ways to do this; either the information is new, i.e. as a result of the new research, or it is derived from previous research. When it is the latter, the normal way to credit the source of the evidence is to include a citation in the statement, (such as, “There are …. (Rennie and Smyth, 2019)” or “Rennie and Smyth (2019) claimed….” This then flags the full reference, listed in alphabetical order at the end of the document, which in this case is, “Rennie, F. and Smyth, K. (2019) Digital Learning: The Key Concepts. London: Routledge”. (I also usually include the ISBN – International Standard Book Number – for books, and the DOI – Digital Object Identifier – for journal articles, but that is just me being extra-sure that subsequent readers can locate the item.) Crucially, if a claim or a ‘fact’ is given without a citation to the supporting evidence, then it is assumed that the information source is the writer. If it is not the writer, then the missing citation is regarded either as shoddy workmanship at best, or plagiarism at worst. Plagiarism – knowingly misrepresenting some other persons direct words/ideas as your own – is regarded a major misdeed in academia, so an important role of the supervisor is to ensure from an early stage that the student treats accurate referencing very seriously.

I encourage my students to adopt the same rigor that I do, which is, firstly, start to compile the list of references right from the very start of the research project. Always write out the references in full, and do not leave any information out – the chances are that you will forget to go back to correct it. When I find new relevant articles, books, or other resources that I know I want to include in my writing, I add the references to the master list as I read them. Secondly, when I have completed my final draft text (and usually a couple of times before then) I sit down with a printout of the main text on one side, and the list of references on the other. I go through the main text, marking with a highlighting pen every citation that I come across. I then turn to the list of references and highlight it there too. By the time that I have read the whole of the text, every citation should be highlighted, and every reference should also be highlighted. If I have missed any references, or included references that I have not actually mentioned in my text, then this is the opportunity to update the reference list by either adding or removing the relevant items. It is a laborious process, but it is fool proof.

The danger of not doing this is when a particular citation catches the eye of the External Examiner, and they turn to the reference list for the full details. If the reference is missing, they do not know whether the writer has made a one-off mistake, or if there are many more missing references. The result is an almost mandatory viva condition to “Check all references” before passing the dissertation, rather than getting a “no corrections required”.

2 thoughts on “Checking references and citations”

  1. Hi Frank

    A useful article and always good to double check, but do you not use any reference manager software?

    Best regards


    From: UHeye Reply-To: UHeye Date: Wednesday, 22 May 2019 at 11:01 To: Subject: [New post] Checking references and citations

    frankrennie posted: ” It is amazing how many students get into a muddle over the simple process of ensuring accurate links to the supporting evidence for their claims. Let us get this right; it is not the supervisors job to check that citations and references are correct, bu”

    1. A very good question, Joanna, thanks. I do use Mendeley sometimes for bringing together references that I am working on -mainly for sharing with co-authors. I used to use RefMe and RefWorks, (until the service was disconitnued suddenly!) and I found them useful, but often limiting. I have been doing this for SO long, that I have a master list of all the references that I have ever used, in a Word doc , (backed up, and the back-up backed up!) so it’s easy to add to this and cut-and-paste when I need to.

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