Once the research question(s) and the probable method(s) of gathering new data have been established, the next stage in any research process is to ensure that the following stage(s) of the research project will be ethically appropriate for the task(s) in hand. In actual fact, the ethical considerations will have been made at a general level much earlier in the research planning, but it is only now, when there is a greater certainty about the methodology and the details of the data-gathering methods, that the researcher will be sure of the complete nature of the ethical issues which might be involved in the research.
It is not uncommon at this stage for researchers, especially novice researchers, to declare that their particular research project “does not really have any ethical issues”. This is almost always untrue. Whether it is a simple survey with a clipboard and pen, or a more complex set of interviews, questionnaires or focus groups, there will always be issues relating to the nature of the information intended to be gathered, from whom it will be gathered, or how the subsequent data might be stored and made available to other people. Research projects involving patients, animals, children, or vulnerable adults will require especially stringent ethical codes of practice. Laboratory experiments, fieldwork, or simply re-working the data already gathered by a previous researcher, will all have their own distinct and necessary ethical guidelines to consider. At the very, very least, there are ethical questions which need to be considered about who is funding the research, who decides what research gets a priority, and what do the funding organisations receive in return for their financial support?
The supervisor has a crucial role in talking through with the student all of the possible ethical issues which might impact upon the research. Frequently, the ethical issues can be resolved very easily, and the research can proceed, but the simple fact of working through the range possible issues which might arise, and sharing experience on how they can be satisfactorily dealt with, is an important part of the professional training required by the student.
Every university, and most professional associations which come into contact with research, will have codes of conduct and formal procedures for scrutinising and approving research ethics proposals for research projects with which they are involved. This will require specific application forms, a scrutinising committee, and a formal code of research behaviour with which researchers are required to conform. Some procedures to gain ethical approval for research are particularly detailed, for example anything requiring contact with the health service, such as patient notes, contact with patients, or any engagement with either health staff or medical procedures, is likely to involve substantial detail and very careful research design.
Key concerns in all research ethics matters are to avoid causing harm, to respect confidentiality, and to maintain high standards of moral integrity. The latter, for instance, might refer to a very wide range of “common sense” standards such as to refrain from cheating, plagiarism, falsifying results, vested interests, and so on. Though they may seem “common sense” to most of us, we tend to forget that many of these issues are perceived differently by different cultures, and influenced by pressures which might be applied – internal and external to the institution – to “encourage” researchers to produce favourable results one way or another. It is for these reasons that gaining the approval of the research ethics committee is a fundamental gateway for any research project before it can be seriously undertaken.