Teaching research ethics is almost impossible. Teaching someone about ethics is a different matter, but unless a person actually understands why ethical standards are essential, then everything else is fruitless. It is relatively straightforward to present examples of good ethical practice (and what happens when this practice is ignored) but this simply underpins the implementation of the ethical standards, not the need for them. Fortunately, there are lots of detailed guidelines and professional codes describing the expectations of ethical behaviour, many of them readily available on the web. I say “lots” because the ethical standards vary widely in content and detail, dependent on the subject discipline, the research methods employed, the level of study, and several other factors. This might sound vague, but think about it. There will be a different level of scrutiny required if a researcher seeks access to the confidential medical files of patient, rather than simply asking patients to respond to a few verbal questions. There will be different standards again if the researcher plans to work with animals, or children, or vulnerable adults with diminished responsibility. There is also an ethical code for internet-mediated research, although this is new, variable, and highly contextual, so it is an evolving set of guidelines. Despite these differences, the purpose of research ethics is the same in each case – namely to prevent causing harm to the participants, to preserve their dignity (for example their right to anonymity) and to enable them to withdraw from the study without any undue pressure or penalty.
For these reasons, there is a crucial stage between deciding on what research methods are to be adopted for a study, and the commencement of data collection. This crucial stage is where the researcher submits the details of the design, methodology, and any issues relating to the collection and storage of data, for approval by the university ethics committee. Only after ethical clearance has been approved can the student begin to collect data. Failure to obtain approval before data is collected may result in the university deciding that this data is not admissible for inclusion in the study. If there have been any severe breaches of ethical responsibility, the study may be terminated or the student de-registered. For this reason, the ethical approval of a student research project is a gate-keeper stage of every study.
Fortunately, most research projects have fairly straightforward ethical requirements which are easily satisfied in full. A lot of the ethical safeguards might be regarded as “simply common sense” (and so they are) but you might be surprised by the number of times people say “Oh, there are no ethical issues with my research!” This is almost certainly wrong. Even the issue of whether the researcher with half-formed ideas should be “wasting” the time of an interviewee who almost certainly has something better, perhaps crucial, to do, is an ethical issue. For these reasons, seeking ethical approval for research should be a serious matter, but not something to fret unduly about, if the researcher has properly thought through the research design. Once the ethical approval has been obtained, the researcher is able to jump out of the starting blocks to engage with data collection, and this is where the real fun part starts.